Unix Toolbox. Unix Toolbox. This document is a collection of UnixLinuxBSD commands and tasks which are useful for IT work or for advanced users. This is a practical guide with concise explanations, however the reader is supposed to know what she is doing. Hardware Statistics Users Limits Runlevels root password Compile kernel Repair grub Misc. Linux-Unix-Command-Cheat-Sheet-3-720x509.jpg' alt='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf Portfolio' title='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf Portfolio' />171013 50 Most Frequently Used UNIX Linux Commands With Examples www. Serial Number For Vuescan 9 X64. Curtir 375 Home Free eBook. Rsync is a most commonly used command for copying and synchronizing files and directories remotely as well as locally in LinuxUnix systems. A collection of UnixLinuxBSD commands and tasks which are useful for IT work or for advanced users, a compact and practical reference. Kali_Linux_Cheat_Sheet-768x941.png' alt='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf' title='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf' />Running kernel and system information. Get the kernel version and BSD version. Full release info of any LSB distribution. Su. SE release Get Su. SE version. cat etcdebianversion Get Debian version. Use etcDISTR release with DISTR lsb Ubuntu, redhat, gentoo, mandrake, sun Solaris, and so on. See also etcissue. Show how long the system has been running load. Display the IP address of the host. Linux only. man hier Description of the file system hierarchy. Linux-command-cheat-sheet.png' alt='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf' title='List Of All Unix Commands With Examples Pdf' />Show system reboot history. Hardware Informations. Kernel detected hardware. Detected hardware and boot messages. Read BIOSLinux cat proccpuinfo CPU model. Hardware memory. grep Mem. Total procmeminfo Display the physical memory. Watch changeable interrupts continuously. Used and free memory m for MB. Configured devices. Show PCI devices. Show USB devices. Show a list of all devices with their properties. Show DMISMBIOS hw info from the BIOSFree. BSD sysctl hw. model CPU model. Gives a lot of hardware information. CPUs installed. sysctl vm Memory usage. Hardware memory. sysctl a grep mem Kernel memory settings and info. Configured devices. Show PCI devices. Show USB devices. Show ATA devices. Show SCSI devices. Load, statistics and messages. The following commands are useful to find out what is going on on the system. IO statistics 2 s intervals. BSD summary of system statistics 1 s intervals. BSD tcp connections try also ip. BSD active network connections. BSD network traffic through active interfaces. BSD CPU and and disk throughput. System V interprocess. Last 5. 00 kernelsyslog messages. System warnings messages see syslog. Users id Show the active user id with login and group. Show last logins on the system. Show who is logged on the system. Add group admin and user colin LinuxSolaris. Colin Barschel g admin m colin. G lt group lt user Add existing user to group Debian. A lt user lt group Add existing user to group Su. SE. userdel colin Delete user colin LinuxSolaris. Free. BSD add user joe interactive. Free. BSD delete user joe interactive. Use pw on Free. BSD. Add a new member to a group. Colin Barschel g admin m s bintcsh. Encrypted passwords are stored in etcshadow for Linux and Solaris and etcmaster. Free. BSD. If the master. To temporarily prevent logins system wide for all users but root use nologin. The message in nologin will be displayed might not work with ssh pre shared keys. Sorry no login now etcnologin Linux. Sorry no login now varrunnologin Free. BSDLimits. Some application require higher limits on open files and sockets like a proxy. The default limits are usually too low. Linux. Per shellscript. The shell limits are governed by ulimit. The status is checked. For example to change the open files limit from. This is only valid within the shell. The ulimit command can be used in a script to change the limits for the script only. Per userprocess. Login users and applications can be configured in etcsecuritylimits. For example. cat etcsecuritylimits. Limit user processes. Limit application open files. System wide. Kernel limits are set with sysctl. Permanent limits are set in etcsysctl. View all system limits. View max open files limit. Change max open files limit. Permanent entry in sysctl. How many file descriptors are in use. Free. BSDPer shellscript. Use the command limits in csh or tcsh or as in Linux, use ulimit in an sh or bash shell. Per userprocess. The default limits on login are set in etclogin. An unlimited value is still limited by the system maximal value. Kernel limits are also set with sysctl. Permanent limits are set in etcsysctl. The syntax is the same as Linux but the keys are different. View all system limits. XXXX maximum number of file descriptors. Permanent entry in etcsysctl. Typical values for Squid. TCP queue. Better for apachesendmail. How many file descriptors are in use. How many open sockets are in use. Default is 1. 02. See The Free. BSD handbook Chapter 1. And also Free. BSD performance tuninghttp serverfault. Solaris. The following values in etcsystem will increase the maximum file descriptors per proc. Hard limit on file descriptors for a single proc. Soft limit on file descriptors for a single proc. Runlevels. Linux. Once booted, the kernel starts init which then starts rc which starts all scripts belonging to a runlevel. The scripts are stored in etcinit. N. d with N the runlevel number. The default runlevel is configured in etcinittab. It is usually 3 or 5. The actual runlevel can be changed with init. For example to go from 3 to 5. Enters runlevel 5. Shutdown and halt. Single User mode also S2 Multi user without network. Multi user with network. Multi user with X6 Reboot. Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel. List all init scripts. Report the status of sshd. Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5. Disable sshd for all runlevels. Debian and Debian based distributions like Ubuntu or Knoppix use the command update rc. Default is to start in 2,3,4 and 5 and shutdown in 0,1 and 6. Activate sshd with the default runlevels. With explicit arguments. Disable sshd for all runlevels. Shutdown and halt the system. Free. BSD. The BSD boot approach is different from the Sys. V, there are no runlevels. The final boot state single user, with or without X is configured in etcttys. All OS scripts are located in etcrc. The activation of the service is configured in etcrc. The default behavior is configured in etcdefaultsrc. The scripts responds at least to startstopstatus. Go into single user mode. Go back to multi user mode. Shutdown and halt the system. Reboot. The process init can also be used to reach one of the following states level. For example init 6 for reboot. Halt and turn the power off signal USR21 Go to single user mode signal TERM6 Reboot the machine signal INTc Block further logins signal TSTPq Rescan the ttys5 file signal HUPWindows. Start and stop a service with either the service name or service description shown in the Services Control Panel as follows. WSearch. net start WSearch start search service. Windows Search. net start Windows Search same as above using descr. Reset root password. Linux method 1. At the boot loader lilo or grub, enter the following boot option. The kernel will mount the root partition and init will start the bourne shell. Use the command passwd at the prompt to change the password and then reboot. Forget the single user mode as you need the password for that. If, after booting, the root partition is mounted read only, remount it rw. Free. BSD method 1. On Free. BSD, boot in single user mode, remount rw and use passwd. You can select the single user mode on the boot menu option 4 which is displayed for 1. The single user mode will give you a root shell on the partition. Unixes and Free. BSD and Linux method 2. Other Unixes might not let you go away with the simple init trick.